When Qing extended its power beyond the Great Wall of China in the final years of the Ming Dynasty, Nurhaci’s son and successor Hong Taiji added mirrored Mongolian and Han banners to the eight-banner system. As the power of Qing increased past the Great Wall in the last years of the Ming dynasty, Kurhazi’s son (and successor Huang Taiji) added reflective Mongols and Han banners to the banner systems.
The early Qing emperors took over the bureaucratic structures and institutions of the previous Ming Dynasty, which divided the rule between Han Chinese and Manchus, a position that was later transferred to the Mongols. Later Jin (also spelled Jin or Jinn) differed from the dynasty that ruled from 936 to 946 because it was founded not only by Han Chinese who constitute a majority of the Chinese population but also by Manchurians, who today constitute an ethnic minority in China. The Qing Emperor accepted the Han Chinese language as the official language of the Han people used to rule China.
The Qing dynasty was after the Ming dynasty that lasted from 1368 to 1644 and before the Republic of China that lasted from 1912 to 1949. The Qing dynasty period is known to have powerful rulers, long reigns, and periods of prosperity, but much of it was interrupted by natural disasters, invasions, and popular uprisings that led the dynasty to its end. The ethnic Manchu rulers of China ruled during the Middle Kingdom, beginning in 1644 AD, but were defeated by the last Ming (1911-1912).
The Qing dynasty (Qing Empire or Great Qing Tching) was the last dynasty in China’s imperial history. Declared in 1616 the later Jin dynasty, it changed its name in 1636 to Qing and was after the completion of the Manchu conquest ruler of China in 1644. After the fall of the Ming, government institutions were established, so-called imperial households and divisions that existed only in the Qin Dynasty, and fully matured in 1661 after the death of Shunzhi Emperor and the accession to the throne of his son Kangxi Emperor.
During the Qing dynasty, the empire’s territory compared to that of the previous Ming dynasty (1368-1644) tripled, the population grew from 150 million to 450 million, there were many non-Chinese minorities in the empire, and a Sininized and integrated economy was established. The Emperor equated the countries of their state with what is now northeast China, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet, and other areas of China, defined it as a multiethnic state, and rejected the notion that it meant only the Han region. In this regard, Mongolia and Tibet as well as East Turkestan differed in that they retained imperial control over the other pre-Qing dynasties, with the emperor acting as Mongolian king, patron saint of Tibetan Buddhism, and protector of Muslims.
This position was rejected by the Republic of China and the sub-Continental People’s Republic of China based on the fact that these areas were an integral part of the Chinese Qing dynasty. The imperial palace of the Ming and Qing dynasties in Beijing, also known as the Forbidden City, was built by the Ming Emperor Zhu Di between 1406 and 1420 and experienced the enthronement of 14 Ming and 10 Qing Emperors in the following 505 years. The royal residence of the emperors of the dynasty of the 15th to the 20th century was the center of state power in feudal China.
During the 18th century, Qing and Ching Dynasties of the XI – era, the Qing Empire was the largest and wealthiest in the world, enjoying rich cultural and artistic achievements. But unfortunately on February 12, 1912, the last Emperor, the six-year-old Puyi, renounced the throne, ending not only the crippled Qing dynasty but also the millennial imperial era in China. Emperor Shunzhi, the first emperor of the Qing dynasty wanted to relocate the capital of the new empire to Beijing and it took several years for the Manchus to defeat the people of the Ming dynasty. Emperor Shunszhia’s top priority was to defeat the rest of the Ming factions in China so that he could form a government to govern the empire.
The last Ming – ruler, Emperor of Chongzhen committed suicide and the capital Beijing fell to a coalition of rebels led by Li Zicheng, a former Ming official who founded the short-lived Shun – Dynasty – officially ending the Ming – Dynasty. The federation of non-Chinese tribes living in the northeastern region of Manchuria under the leadership of the Manchus organized under the eight banners (baqia, sanfan, zhi, luan, a1ao) after the end of the uprising against the Qing Dynasty (ae, the Master of China himself). There was a third branch, the Han banner, which was to join the Manchu after the founding of the Qing, but they were never equated with the other two branches by the government because they joined the Manchu cause late and because they were of Han-Chinese descent.