Yiguandao is a Chinese folk religion that originated in the 19th century from the Xiantiandao tradition. Like many sects, Yiguandao combines elements of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and Chinese folk religion. Since the focus is on the primordial deity superior to all other gods, Xiantiandao sects claim to represent a Way (Dao) that is superior to all existing religions.
All individual Xiantiandao sects consider themselves to be the executors of Mother’s intentions, converting people and guiding them on the path of cultivation and transformation that will eventually lead them back to Heaven. Through the Yiguandao empowerment, practitioners hope that after death they will be able to ascend directly to the highest heaven. Like other new non-Christian religions in China, Xiantiandao relies heavily on messages from various spirits and the Ancient Mother herself through automatic writing.
China has a long tradition of new salvation religions that associate salvation with the worship of certain gods through certain unique rituals. Religion in Taiwan is diverse, including all aspects of traditional Chinese culture. Taoism, a religious, philosophical and ritual tradition that originated in China, is the second most popular religion in Taiwan, attended by 33% of the population.
Buddhism is the most widely practiced religion in Taiwan, with about 35.1% of the population admitting to practice the religion. Part of the Buddhist community follows Chinese Buddhism, while others follow Asian Buddhism, the main difference being the practice of vegetarianism. The Xiantiandao religions were considered unorthodox and suppressed throughout Chinese history; they are still mostly banned in mainland China, but thrive in Taiwan, where at least 7% of the population adheres to some kind of sect derived from Xiantiandao.
The Tian Dao movement is not limited to Chinese-speaking countries, there is at least one sect, Tian Dao (“The Way to Heaven” or “Tian Dao”) active in Japan. The first Phoenix Hall was built in Magong, the capital of Penghu, in 1853, and has since spread throughout mainland China and Taiwan. In the same year, under the influence of Yang Mingji, the Phoenix Church in northern Taiwan began to unite in the name of “Confucianism is like a religious religion”. Confucianism Class Model Manual (Confucianism Class Model Etiquette Rules), published in 1937.
The tradition of Phoenix Hall began in 1853, when a Fuji-inspired cult was established in Magong, the capital of the Penghu Islands between Fujian and Taiwan. It is related to the traditions of the rebellious sect of the time, the White Lotus Sect, especially the anti-cult political center and religious opposition. It can also be traced back to the earlier Wugong Dao (Wu Gong Dao “Wu Gong Zhi Dao”), which was the Yuan Dynasty branch of the white lotus tradition.
Modern Western scholars have proven that although there was a Buddhist movement called “White Lotus Religion” in the Middle Ages of China (1368-1644), “White Lotus Religion” became a general term for all banned groups. As an “unorthodox doctrine” (xie jiao), not as a specific movement. For all practical purposes, “cult” and “white lotus” are used interchangeably. A new religion, accused of being part of the “White Lotus Sect” and banned as a cult in China, is Xian Tian Dao, whose origins date back to the Middle Ages, although it took its present form in the 18th century as a cult. Ancient Mother, Wu Sheng Lao Mu. Despite this name, the Infinite Mother is not a female god, but the primordial force of all things in the universe; Yiguan Dao considers it to be equivalent to Dao.
Like other Xiantian Taoist sects, Guitong focuses on worshiping the God of the Universe (Heaven), who he considers to be the most holy ancestor (the most holy ancestor) in the ancient sky, as the source of salvation. Kodo is affiliated with the Japanese Omoto (大本”大春”) Shinto sect, a religion banned in the People’s Republic of China, and has since operated as an underground church. Gui Dao (Gui Dao, “Return to One”), better known in Taiwan today as the former cosmic savior (Xiantian Jiujiao Xiantian Jiujiao; or “Former Heaven Salvation”), was also historically known as its institution. Such as Dao Te She, Guidaoyuan (Guidaoyuan) or later Daoyuan (Daoyuan) – respectively “Tao Te She”, “Guiyi Xuetang” or simply “Daoyuan” School della Via” – A popular religious salvation movement in China belonging to the Xiantian Dao (“Old Dao of Heaven”) tradition.
This special topic discusses the units and differences in the field of sectarian religion in late imperial and modern China, with reference to important examples of Xiantian Dao (Xiantian Dao). This panel includes three articles on different types of warding off evil solutions practiced in China, and generally emphasizes the importance of warding off evil solutions in Chinese religion, explaining ritual logic and mechanisms of warding off evil spirits. At the same time, the group seeks not only to contribute to discussions in the field of religion in China, but also to address the most important issues in religious studies in general, such as those related to the attribution of identity and religious phenomena. This module will provide a basic narrative of Taoism as a recognized tradition of religious thought and practice throughout Chinese history.
Maitreya is a traditional figure in Buddhist eschatology who is believed to usher in a new era of enlightenment. His influence is clearly visible in Vietnam’s largest new religion, Cao Dai, which formed in the 1920s. Yiguandao continued to promote the rather exclusive cult of the Ancient Mother (although Jesus, along with the Buddha, was one of the prophets she sent) and rely on spiritual messages transmitted, in particular, through girls and written in sand (although not all offshoots, nor all leaders approved of this practice ), maintaining the Xiantiandao tradition.
Soon, neighboring Buddhist and Taoist temples began to join Yiguandao, or at least accept the patronage of the sects. Many independent Buddhist and Taoist temples are affiliated with Yiguandao and receive financial support in return. The membership of Yiguandao grew by the thousands in 1925. One was led by Wang Juyi of Shandong, who claimed to have received a divine revelation, naming him the 15th Xiantiandao Patriarch.
The duke, who lived in the nearby city of Qufu, denounced Yiguandao as unorthodox, and Tianran responded in kind, stating that traditional Confucians had gone astray and that drastic measures were needed to rid China of the warlord. Taoism is believed to have originated from the fusion of various Chinese folk religions. Taoism encourages vegetarianism and fasting.