What Is The Italo-Ethiopian War?

For the undeclared war between Italy and Ethiopia during the Italian conquest of Eritrea, Italian-Ethiopian War 1887-1889. The Second Italo-Ethiopia War (also known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War) was a conflict between the Fascist state of Italy and the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia) that began in October 1935. a short war. The war resulted in the incorporation of Ethiopia, which had resisted Italian occupation in the 19th century, into Italian East Africa along with Italian Eritrea and Somaliland. The invasion of Ethiopia began in October 1935, and the war ended with Benito Mussolini’s proclamation of the Italian Empire in May 1936.

One of the first aggressive acts of the fascist government of Benito Mussolini in Italy was his invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. The prospect of war increased significantly after the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini took control of Italy in 1922. The war took place at the height of isolationist sentiment in the US Congress and in the country as a whole. The war began on October 3, 1935, when General Emilio De Bono moved his troops to the Mareb River in Ethiopia before Italy officially declared war.

After the defeat of Italy, the Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was fought by the remnants of the Italian forces and their allies, which continued until the truce between Italy and the allied armed forces in September 1943. It was headed by the governor of Eritrea, General Oreste Baratieri. Italian military forces penetrated deep into Ethiopia before being forced to retreat to defensive positions in the Tigray border region. The next battle took place at Amba Alagi on December 7, 1895, when Ethiopian soldiers invaded the Italian positions dug out in this natural fortress and forced the Italians to retreat into Eritrea. Instead, Emperor Selassie declared war on Italy, but an invading force quickly advanced into northern Ethiopia, capturing Adigrat and Adua by 6 October.

The British and the Emperor then sought to cooperate with Ethiopian and other local forces to drive the Italians out of Ethiopia and British Somaliland, which the Italians had taken over in August 1940, and to resist the Italian invasion of Sudan. A diplomatic conflict ensued, with the Ethiopians (despite British and French demands to appease the Italians) seeking arbitration from the League of Nations (Baer 1967). Following the shrewd policy of the Ethiopian delegation, the coalition considered Ethiopia’s demands, but the Italians took the case to bilateral arbitration, allowing themselves to completely ignore Ethiopia’s demands and continue preparing for a war they knew was imminent.

Ethiopia’s appeal to the League of Nations did not work, despite Italy’s actions in Ethiopia in clear violation of international rules. When the Italian movement became too violent (interspersed with the notorious three-day massacre of up to 20,000 Ethiopians in Addis Ababa), the League of Nations reacted weakly, imposing the aforementioned comparative measures against Italy. weak sanctions. In search of a compromise, the Hora-Laval Plan (which essentially handed over 3/5 of Ethiopia’s land to the Italians without Ethiopia’s consent, on the condition of an immediate end to the war), but when news of the agreement sparked public outcry The outrage was so great that the British and French governments were forced to wash their hands of the whole thing.

To smooth the circle caused by his campaign promises and his desire not to offend Mussolini too much, the cabinet decided on a plan to hand over most of Ethiopia to Italy and the rest in the Italian sphere of influence, for example, the best way to end the war. On the eve of the war, an agreement was concluded on the provision of military assistance to Ethiopia. After the treaty war, Italy recognized Ethiopia as an independent state and cleared the border with Eritrea. Two years later, on April 6, 1941, British and Ethiopian forces expelled the Italians from Addis Abba and reinstated Emperor Haile Selassie as head of the Ethiopian government.

Ironically, Ethiopia was the first country liberated by the Axis powers during World War II. Ethiopia is largely supported by Russia, which provided weapons, officers and medical supplies to aid the Ethiopian army during the war. The first phase of colonial expansion ended with the disastrous First Italo-Ethiopian War and the defeat of the Italian army at the Battle of Aduwa on March 1, 1896, by Negus Menelik II of Ethiopia The army was created with the support of Russia and France.

Aduwa was conquered on 6 October due to the defeat of the Ethiopian army at the Battle of Aduwa during the First Italian-Ethiopian War, a symbolic place for the Italian army. The First Italian-Ethiopian War (1895-1896) ended in disaster for ambitious colonists; at the Battle of Aduwa, the Italian army was ambushed by the troops of the then Ethiopian monarch Menelik II, resulting in the Italian War More than 3,000 people died, the biggest loss for Europeans in the fight for Africa. In Ethiopia it is often referred to simply as the Italian Invasion and in Italy the Ethiopian War. Also known as the Second Italian-Abyssinian War, it was a colonial war between the army of the Kingdom of Italy and the Ethiopian Empire (also known as Abyssinia).

Although the Italian-Ethiopian campaign took place in countries on the fringes of geopolitical interests, it shook the world order established by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and challenged the hegemony of the League of Nations, of which Ethiopia was a member. , is now considered to be one of the factors that contributed to the outbreak of World War II. Like the North African front of World War II, the Second Italian-Ethiopian War was often overlooked in favor of other pre-1939 conflicts and negotiations. With a small number of outdated artillery and anti-tank or aircraft guns, and a small number of aircraft, including some piloted by African Americans and other volunteers, the Ethiopian people were ill-prepared for a second invasion of Italy.

After several skirmishes in which the Ethiopians succeeded in punishing the Italians, their troops usually disbanded rather than consolidated their gains. Ethiopian troops’ crimes included using dumdum bullets (in violation of the Hague conventions), killing civilian workers (including during the Gondran massacre), mutilating captured Italians and askaris (often by castration). the first weeks of the war. In the battle and subsequent retreat to Eritrea, the Italians lost about 7,000 killed and 1,500 wounded, with 3,000 taken prisoner; Ethiopian losses are estimated at about 4,000-5,000 killed and 8,000 wounded. The Italian prisoners were treated in the best possible way under difficult conditions, but 800 Askari prisoners, who were considered traitors by the Ethiopians, had their right arm and left leg amputated.

This prolonged the war and drew Italy’s attention away from Austria. For the actors at the center of politics, domestic considerations and the eventual collapse of the Ethiopian resistance posed the question throughout World War II.

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