What Is Fascism?

Fascism is generally defined as a political movement that embraces the idea of an authoritarian government overseen by a central authority such as the state, the military, or the judiciary and police. Before you think about using the term, you should know what fascism really means. Fascists are firmly opposed to Marxism, liberalism, and democracy, and believe that the state takes precedence over individual interests.

They see imperialism, political violence and war as a way to achieve national rebirth and advocate the use of military force against other weak nations such as the Soviet Union. Many fascists claim that it is necessary to crowd out other, weaker nations to expand their territory, especially in the Middle East. Although Nazism and fascism both reject the ideologies of liberalism, Marxism, and democracy, they differ in many respects. Most people assign fascism to the extreme right because fascist leaders like Hitler advocated racial superiority. However, there are scholars who say that this description is not accurate, because fascism also includes certain left-wing beliefs.

Although fascism was fashionable between 1919 and 1945, Nazism became popular in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s. Fascism is the ideology of Adolf Hitler, who was originally called Fascist Italy under Mussolini. Fascism has to do with the philosophy that its founder Adolf Hitler and his followers have set out. Socialism is the ideology of the Soviet Union, the United States, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Greece and other countries.

In the history of the 20th century, fascist regimes require certain socio-cultural and political situations to confront them, such as economic, social, political, cultural and religious conditions. For starters, they require an extreme national crisis to gain popularity and power. It is also worth noting that we are seeing an increase in the number of regimes coming to power and fascist parties becoming political actors. Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that gained importance in early-twentieth-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy after the First World War and then spread to other European countries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Unlike liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is usually placed in the same category as other forms of authoritarianism, such as communism and fascism. Some on the right view fascism as a nanny – state totalitarianism, and others as an anti-capitalist, anti-fascist, or even fascist ideology. Part of the problem is that right and left are difficult to talk to, and while there are dangerous forms of extremism on both sides, neither is a communist. This does not mean that normal conservative politics cannot find itself in the same category as fascism, but it is not so easy to think of it on a sliding scale.

Other forms of fascism have also experienced steady growth, but much attention has been paid to the more extreme, biologically determining neo-fascists. Corporatism is being revived, and racial nationalism, a key component of fascism, has emerged. In Eastern Europe, it was the driving force behind the tragic ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslav states, driven by the racist policies of Prime Minister Slobodan Milosevic’s communist government. Fascist leaders win support by appealing to people’s nationalism and racism, or by promoting the idea of ethnic cleansing, or by otherwise portraying people as illegitimate citizens, as Hitler did with Jews in Germany.

Such leaders amplify these issues by developing what is sometimes called a personality cult. If fascism is based on nationalism, racism, and authoritarian rule, it can also be applied to practices similar to military dictatorship. Government is often seen as a form of totalitarianism, in which government controls almost every aspect of ordinary life. Today, the variants of fascism continue to live in a series of military dictatorships around the world, such as the Soviet Union, the United States, and even some parts of Europe. While the idea of a united nation under a fascist state with Mussolini probably died, the extreme racist forms of fascism, strengthened by the Internet, are still alive and well today.

Although fascism can be difficult to define, all fascist movements share central beliefs and actions. As the American Historical Association put it, “When in Italy one speaks of fascism, the proclaimed aims and principles of the fascist movement are of little importance. The term “fascism” has been hurled at political opponents as an insult, slander and even a threat to the integrity of democracy and the rule of law. Fascism requires not only the use of force, but also the denial of the rule of law, freedom of speech, and the protection of human rights.

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