Military history, in general, has been little studied from the early to mid-13th century, and possible military events in the period between the civil war of 1215-17; may be influenced by the wars of Edward I at the end of the 13th century and the wars of the barons.
The Second War of the Barons (1264-1267) was a civil war in England between the forces of a number of barons led by Simon de Montfort against the monarchical forces of King Henry III, led first by the king himself and then by his son. , the future King Edward I. Henry III violated the regulations, which led to a war between the royal faction and the head of the barons Simon de Montfort, who won in 1264. While Henry became a figurehead king, de Montfort expanded parliamentary representation to include groups outside the nobility, members of every county in England, and many important cities.
At the Battle of Lewis, King Henry and his eldest son, Prince Edward, the future King of England, were captured by the barons and taken prisoner. Louis’ ambition to rule England met with a major setback in October 1216 when the death of King John forced the rebel barons to abandon him in favor of John Henry III’s nine-year-old son of England and the war.
After a year and a half of war, most of the rebel barons deserted, and therefore Louis VIII had to abandon his claims to the post of King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth on September 11, 1217. In response, King Louis promised to Help Henry in the fight against the barons. Henry needed help to resist the barons, so he turned to the French king Louis IX.
The French found the best time to let Louis VIII, the son of King Philip II of France, replace John to rule England. Facing the powerful king, the rebellious barons turned to Prince Louis, the son, and heir of French King Philip Augustus, and the grandson of the late British King Henry II.
The cause of this war was the king’s refusal to accept and respect the Magna Carta he concluded on June 15, 1215, and because of the ambition of the French prince, he delayed the war after many rebel barons reconciled with John. In June 1215, King John was forced to seal the baron’s charter by a group of powerful barons who could no longer bear John’s failed leadership and authoritarian rule. The barons, led by Simon of Montfort, Earl of Leicester, finally resorted to force in 1263 to force the king to reiterate his insistence on these arrangements.
In the summer of 1215, after months of timid negotiations, open war broke out between the rebel baron and the king and his supporters. The Battle of Northampton was a battle between King Henry and his son Prince Edward (the future King Edward I) and supporters of Simon de Montfort, led by his son Simon. When Henry attacked the city from the south, on April 5th, Edward led the army to break through the north wall.
The peasants told them to leave, and the soldiers turned against the Kingdom’s Community. A group of barons, including Richard de Clair (Earl of Gloucester), John Fitz Geoffrey, Roger Bigode (Earl of Norfolk), Hugh Bigode (Roger’s brother), Peter of Savoy, Peter de Montfort (not a relative of Simon), and finally Simon de Montfort (Earl Leicester) vowed to be together and oppose the king. The baronial opposition responded by convening its own parliament and challenging control of the local government, but with the impending civil war they left and de Montfort fled to France, while another key opposition leader, Richard de Clair, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, marched through. to the side of the kings. Some of the barons who had previously opposed Henry agreed with this verdict, but the more radical faction led by de Montfort was ready to resist any confirmation of royal power, and they and the king rallied their forces for the war.
This ended in a decisive victory for de Montfort, and Henry and Prince Edward were taken, prisoner. Pierre de Roche, bishop of Winchester, and several barons hastened to crown the young Henry as king of England. Then his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, proposed to the throne of Sicily, and Henry demanded more money from his subjects to support Edmund’s cause. Many of these barons went over to the king’s side, while de Montfort received a lot of support from communities and cities, which saw him as a defender of their flourishing rights.
The fierce battle was one of the last conflicts of the Second Baronial War and led to the capture of Robert de Ferrer, Earl of Derby. Baldwin Wake escaped hostilities and joined other disadvantaged barons on Axholm Island before surrendering to Prince Edward.
Montfort was killed in battle, but some resistance from the barons continued until 1267. Henry’s abandonment of these reforms led to a civil war in 1264 when the baronial forces were led by Simon de Montfort.
The agreement was reached on the basis of the dictum of Kenilworth (1266) and, finally, the statute of Marlborough (1267), which eliminated some of the barons’ claims. The settlement at the end of the First Baronial War was intended to resolve differences between the monarchy and the barons. Simply put, the barons’ war was fought for money and power; England’s greatest aristocrats felt that King Henry III possessed too much and used them poorly. Even those barons who fought against Simon de Montfort were not going to allow Henry III to resume his autocratic path.
Henry III took refuge at Lewis Castle before fighting the rebels on the saddest day of his 56-year rule. After his failure and death in Evesham (August 1265), the struggle of his supporters was unsuccessful until 1267. The war also included a series of massacres of Jews by Demon Forth’s supporters, including his sons Henry and Simon, and attacks aimed at capturing and destroying evidence of the Baron’s debt. During the Second Baron’s War (1264-1267), Rochester Castle was besieged for the third time in its history.
As the name suggests, this is mainly the revival of the First Baron War (1215-17), when the big landlord was angered by Henry’s father John’s refusal to implement the Magna Carta, rebelled, and supported the French invasion of England. The owner of Kenilworth Castle is now the most powerful man in England and has the power to instigate one of the most important political events of the 13th century: widely known as the first meeting of the British Parliament. After the Battle of the Barons, Edward used a powerful central government system to create England, which was fair and responsible according to the standards of the time.