Simone de Beauvoir, is an important existentialist who spent much of her life with Sartre, wrote a feminist ethic of existence in her work, including a series of essays on the subject – object relations in existential philosophy. Heidegger himself thought that he had only taken his own work and reduced it to a philosophy oriented towards subject and object, from which he wanted to liberate philosophy. But most consider him to be an important existentialist and one of the most important thinkers in the history of philosophy and philosophy of religion.
Jean-Paul Charles-Aymard Sartre is one of the most important philosophers of our time, and other famous existentialists are Jean-Michel Foucault (1884-1946) and Maynard Keynes, as well as other prominent philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas and Friedrich Nietzsche. Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979) criticized existentialism, especially Sartre’s “The Nothingness,” because he projected the very essence of existence onto the human condition and the fact that we live in a modern oppressive society. A certain existential therapy comes from a field of philosophy known as existentialism, which examines the meaning of our existence. This can be traced back to the work of Jean-Jacques Derrida (1868 – 1946) and his work on the subject – object relations in philosophy.
Sartre’s early work, born in Paris on 21 June 1905, focused on themes illustrated by his work on the nature of reality and the meaning of freedom and free will. After nine months in German captivity in the 1940s, he began to explore the meaning of freedom and free will and wrote his first book, “The Theory of Free Will,” in 1940. His early involvement in the French Communist Party and its revolutionary movement is well known, as he was involved in resistance, did not give in to collaboration and conformity, and had an active interest in revolutionary movements.
He argued that if we can grasp political theory, politics, and institutions, we will be able to place ourselves appropriately in the human condition. Perhaps the most important aspect of existential philosophy, which actually seems to be existentialist, is its focus on the essence of reality and the meaning of freedom and free will. Taking into account the fact that freedom is one of the most important issues studied by existentialist philosophers, one has to deal with issues such as freedom of speech, freedom from oppression, the right to self-determination, or the rights of women and children. Existentialism is a very influential philosophy that has subsequently had a strong impact on politics and pop culture and is still very popular in certain circles.
While romanticism tends to be more oriented towards the whole of nature and to regard man as part of a larger picture, existentialism focuses on the individual and the relationship between man and his environment. Polly Stryker addresses the interface between psychotherapy and philosophy, especially as a father-son existentialist psychotherapist. It examines how existential something can be in psychiatry and how often the topics that people want to address in psyche therapy are of an existential nature (life, death, meaning, etc.).
John Macquarrie characterizes existentialism as a style of philosophizing, not philosophy. Romance flourished amid horror, while existentialism flourished after horror. The main intention is to acknowledge that the diversity of ideas, priorities and conclusions is probably shared by different thinkers who have enough in common to the point that it is justified to mention them all.
It is worth noting that existentialism encompasses a multitude of ideas, and as such it should be mentioned only some of the most important. The history of existentialist philosophy, examining the oft-quoted phrase “philosophy of life and death,” considering the difference between existentialism and nihilism, briefly discuss what the main concerns of philosophy are for existentialists, and consider some differences between them. However, to understand it, it is helpful to clarify what it is and what it is not. Existentialism is not a philosophical system, and it should not even be considered a set of doctrines. Rather, it is probably best described as a “philosophical movement,” but that definition is difficult, because its proponents differ sharply. Existentialism itself is a revolt against traditional philosophy, but it cannot be called philosophy because of the many differences with other philosophical systems.
In contrast to other areas of philosophy, existentialism values individual subjectivity and objectivity, but does not treat the individual as a concept. It can be seen as a philosophical movement that rejects the idea that life has an inherent meaning and instead requires individuals to set their own subjective values. Try to understand the differences between the “existentials” and their thinking in the context of their ideas about the meaning of life.