What Are The Greco-Persian Wars?

Most of our account of war comes from Herodotus and other Greek writers who were obviously biased. Therefore, their work should be used with caution. More generally, the war played a decisive role in forming a positive Greek identity, rather than a passive Persian “other”, because they were brave, and noble in defending common Greek interests. Many of the most famous and important battles in history took place during the war. They took place in Marathons, Hot Springs, Salamis, and Platia, and became legends. Perhaps the most important battle in the war was the Battle of Sardis, which was burned down by the Greeks in 498 BC. In the Marathon of 490 BC, the Persians first invaded Greece; Thermopylae, the second invasion, after which the Persians occupied Athens; Salamis, when the Greek combined fleet finally defeated the Persians in 480; With Platia, the Greeks effectively ended the second Persian invasion in 479.

After two Persian invasions of Greece and during the Greek counterattacks, which began after the battles of Plataea and Mikala, Athens united all the islands and some city-states of the mainland into an alliance called the Delian League, whose purpose was to continue the conflict. prepare for future invasions with the Persian Empire and organize the means of sharing the spoils of war. At the same time, Athens united all the island states and some continental states into an alliance called the Delos League, so named because its treasures were stored on the sacred island of Delos, the purpose of which was to continue the struggle against the Persians. Empire, prepare for future invasions, and organize funds to share the spoils of war.

The following year, the Confederate Greeks went on the offensive, finally defeating the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea and ending the Achaemenid invasion of Greece. In the third phase of the wars, the Greek coalition followed their victories by aggressively advancing in the eastern Aegean and conducting targeted attacks on Persian strategic bases, in particular in Mikala, which forced the Persian Empire to relinquish control over Macedonia, Thrace, and other countries. Ellesponto. Xerxes and the bulk of the Persian troops returned to the empire, leaving the part in Greece.

Before the eyes of the Athenians and their allies, the Plateians, the Persians landed on the plain of Marathon and after a few days continued to divide their forces. Date and Artaphernes set out to fight the Greeks in Marathon with 20,000 men, while the city of Athens, only lightly defended, would easily fall victim to the second Persian army.

In support of their Greek brothers, the Athenians, along with a detachment of Eretria, raided and burned the Persian city of Sardis. With the help of Athens and Eretria on mainland Greece, the Ionians burned the Persian city of Sardis. However, the king of Persia, Darius, reacted and destroyed the fleet of Ionian ships in Lada and burned the city-state of Miletus in 494 BC, the Ionian revolt was suppressed.

The Persians were sympathetic to several Greek city-states, including Argos, who vowed to desert when the Persians reached their borders. After this, the Persian kings adopted a strategy of pitting the Greek cities against each other in order to distract them from interfering in Persian affairs. The war ended, but the Greeks and Persians continued to interfere in the affairs of others until Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great.

European sources tend to describe the conflict as a conflict between civilization and barbarism, but the Persian Empire was a highly developed culture no more and no less civilized than the Hellenic world. However, the conflict between the Greek city-states in Ionia and the Persian Empire began before 499 BC. There were subsequent battles between the Romans and Persians, and even another war, which could be called the Greco-Persian, Byzantine-Sassanian War, in the 6th and early 7th centuries AD.

The Persian War was fought in a series of battles, one of the earliest beings on Naxos (502 BC), when Naxos pushed the Persians back into the final battle of Prosopitis, where Greek forces were besieged by the Persians in 456 BC. … The long and bitter struggle between the great Persian Empire and the nascent Greek states reached its climax with the outstanding victory of the Greeks at Salamis in 480 BC. The victory over the allied Greek states in the famous Battle of Thermopylae allowed the Persians to set fire to the evacuated Athens and invade much of Greece. At the same time, the Greek navy managed to hold off the Persians in the indecisive naval battle of Artemisia.

The battle marked a huge victory for the Greeks and ended the Persian invasion of the country. Ultimately, the Greek fleet was defeated at the Battle of Lada in 494 BC. E. The Greek fleet was sent to Cyprus in 451 BC but achieved little, and when he left, the Greco-Persian wars ended peacefully.

Fifty years before the outbreak of war, Cyrus the Great conquered the Greek colonies on the western coast of Asia Minor, which the Greeks called Ionia. The Greek Ionian cities, once subject to the Persian king, gained independence. After the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe and the victory of the Greeks in Mikale, Macedonia and the city-states of Ionia regained their independence. According to the so-called “royal peace” that ended the war, Artaxerxes II demanded and achieved the restitution of the cities of Asia Minor from the Spartans, in exchange for which the Persians threatened to start a war with any Greek state that did not do this.

After the Persian War, the Persian Empire adopted a “divide and conquer” strategy against the Greek city-states, which intensified the already smoldering conflict, including the competition between Athens and Sparta, to protect the Persian Empire from further attacks by Greece. The Persian War (499-449 BC) was a war between the Achaemenid Empire and the Greek world in ancient Greece. The Persian War or the Greek-Persian War, (492-449 BC) was a series of wars between the Greek nations and Persia, especially the two Persian invasions of Greece (490, 480-479).

After conquering the Lydians, the Persians entered the history of Greece and thus entered the Greek city-states of Ionia, which were previously under the rule of the Lydians. In Platia, the biggest battle of the war, 100,000 Persians were defeated by 40,000 Greeks, including Athenians and Spartan heavy infantry. The Persian army and the allied Greek city-state fought the last land battle at Platia.

The Persians suffered a double defeat on the same day in 479 BC. They were defeated in the land battle at Platia, Greece, and their fleet was burned down by the attacking Greek fleet in Asia Minor, Mikala. In addition to the victory of Platia, in the more or less modern battle of Ionian Mikar, the Greek fleet led by Lyotides landed an army, destroyed the Persian garrison, and killed the commander. The Battle of Salamis was a turning point in history; Xerxes would not be able to enter Greece without a fleet to support the army. Xerxes’ brother-in-law Madonius and the other half of the Persian army remained in Greece and did everything they could to cause damage.

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