Google has reached this milestone against the backdrop of a more sobering reality: gate-based quantum computers like the one at the University of California, Berkeley can only muster up to 50 qubits. They work with logic gates and, unlike classical computers, use the fact that the qubit, or quantum bit, is only accessible to a single quantum computer at the same time. Gate-based quantum computers work with a logical gate, but their quantum bits are subject to the same limitations as their classical counterparts. Current quantum computing technology depends on a mechanism called decoherence, in which the quantum information is lost in a quantum bit in the process of processing.
In addition, quantum computers are based on naturally occurring quantum mechanical phenomena, such as two important states of matter known as superposition and entanglement. When these states of matter are used for computer purposes, they can accelerate our ability to perform immense calculations. However, since at least the late 1990s , efforts have been made to build quantum computers that allow superimposition and entanglement, as well as qubits. The first quantum computer chip from Berkeley based start-up Rigetti computing uses 19 qubits, as the company was on track to develop a 128 qubit chip by the end of 2019. If a quantum computer can be built on a large scale, it will be able to solve certain problems much faster and more efficiently than a conventional computer.
Quantum computers use the crazy physics of quantum mechanics to solve problems that would be much harder for a conventional transistor based computer to solve than for classical semiconductor based computers that solve complex problems such as data transmission, data storage, and data processing. Some computer architectures, such as an optical computer, can use classical superimposition of electromagnetic waves and have specific mechanical resources such as entanglements. The calculation Google chose to conquer was the problem of generating a very long list of random numbers and checking each value a million times. The result has a major impact on the computing power of the device and is a major step in the development of quantum computers. Quantum computing can be used to enable new and extremely powerful computer architectures. Instead of processing information with binary bits, a quantum computer uses qubits that use the quantum properties of superposition and entanglement to work in multiple states simultaneously.
Ordinary computers perform calculations with information bits that exist as either 1 or 0, but qubits can effectively be both ones and zeros at the same time. The state of a qubit can be programmed to vary according to the state, and each of these Qu bits can effectively be either one or zero at the same time, or both. This bizarre sequence of quantum mechanics is called superposition of states and is one of the most important features of a quantum computer and the basis for quantum computers. Quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits that can exist either 1 or 0 simultaneously. The way they use the probability of entanglement is that they simultaneously generate the qubit state in one state and the quantum bit in the other state, which in turn results in quantum information.
Researchers are working to understand which problems are suitable for quantum velocities and to develop algorithms that demonstrate the potential of quantum computers for a large scale computations such as the Shor algorithm. The development of a quantum computer high enough to run Shor algorithms on large numbers is an important step in advancing the field of quantum computing. As we develop a broader view of quantum computers, it is important that we understand that they are likely to deliver faster, more efficient, and more accurate results than conventional computers.
Quantum devices use the strange properties of quantum physics and mechanics to accelerate calculations. adding a single qubit doubles the computing power of a quantum computer, and increases its computing power by a factor of 10. Quantum bits, or qubits, are the bits used by the classical digital computers of today, as opposed to those used in quantum computers. Several universities around the world offer similar courses in quantum computing, where cloud based quantum computers are integrated into their pedagogy. The University of California, Berkeley, and the California Institute of Technology ( Caltech ) in Berkeley are already active in this area of quantum computing.