The Agrarian System — patterns of land allocation, property and management, as well as social and institutional structures in agrarian economies. Agrarian system is the dynamic collection of economic and technical factors affecting farming practices. The methods for an agrarian system consider all the social, economic, and political aspects, leading to the understanding of a regions agrarian evolution. Social systems, in other words, constitute a structure in which the agricultural structures may develop.
Within the framework of the social conditions, economic goals, land functions, political and social systems, of the agrarian sector, are important. Feudal, capitalist, and socialist social orders have led to vastly different conditions in terms of landholding, labor organization, and forms of cultivation. The foundations for prevailing agricultural systems can come from any one of several basic types, including agricultural social structures such as tribal or ethnic partitions, feudal classes, or the family-based system. Agrarian systems, such as agrarian systems frameworks for production systems, may be used to identify the capacity of individual farmers to organize their farms, but neither may be used alone to understand the dynamics of farm activities on the regional scale.
Farming practices that are based on non-viable tenure terms, like winter hire, working on sacked land, compound labor services, and so forth, are also a part of the older tillage system. That is to say, the old corvee system is mostly unavoidable, and it means the cultivation on a small scale, small-scale agriculture, in latifundias large, cultivation on landlords lands, using the implements and cattle of small farmers. Under this farming system, the allotment to the peasants is the means by which to provide the landowners with agricultural hands, and not just with agricultural hands, but with implements and livestock, which, however miserable, are useful in cultivating the landlords own lands of the implements and cattle.
The Ottoman system of agriculture was based on the tabu, which involved a perpetual lease of government-owned cropland to the family of peasants. In the twentieth century, land tenure in rural Egypt became highly unequal.
Latifundios — Very large landholdings within Latin American agricultural systems, each able to support more than 12 people, owned by a small set of owners. Shifting cultivation – farming practices among farmers in Africa, Latin America, and Asia where the land is tilled by one family until the time its productivity is exhausted.
After that, a family moves to a new region, leaving behind their old land, in order to restore the land to its fertility. There is no escape from this unless the system of land ownership is fundamentally broken. The agricultural question in Russia is the question of the radical breaking-up of the old, medieval forms of landownership, whether that of landlords or that of tenant farmers — a breaking-up that has become absolutely necessary, given the extraordinary backwardness of the old, given the extraordinary dissonance between it and the entire national economic system, which has become capitalist.
No doubt, the capitalist-like farming system has become well established already, and is being developed in Russia on a steady basis. Agrarian reforms are intentional attempts to reorganize and transform existing agricultural systems, with the intention to improve the distribution of farm incomes and thereby promote the development of the countryside. Includes physical environment (soil, rainfall, vegetation), behavioral environment (perceptions of the ecosystem), operating environment (culture, values, institutions, political systems, technology levels, land tenure).