United States

What Is The Open Door Policy?

What Is The Open Door Policy?

The Open Door Policy was an important foreign policy statement of the United States issued in 1899 and 1900 aimed at protecting the rights of all countries to equal trade with China and reaffirming the multinational recognition of China’s administrative and territorial sovereignty. US Secretary of State John Hay developed an open door policy in

Read More »
What Are The Espionage Wars?

What Are The Espionage Wars?

Learn more about espionage during the American Revolution in the “Espionage That Created the Nation” exhibit. Here you will find a range of key sources on NATO, espionage and security during the Cold War. After the 1990s, new memoirs and archival material paved the way for espionage and intelligence research during the Cold War. Scholars

Read More »
What Is The Persian Gulf War?

What Is The Persian Gulf War?

Although the protracted Iran-Iraq war ended in an UN-brokered ceasefire in August 1988, the two states had yet to begin negotiations on a permanent peace treaty in mid-1990. When Saddam refused to leave the country, on March 20, the United States and its allied forces attacked Iraq and thus began what became known as the

Read More »

What Are The Opium Wars?

Given Britain’s dependence on Chinese silk, ceramics, and tea exports, opium was the only commodity that could save Britain’s balance of payments in Asia from a ruinous deficit. Opium Wars and Foreign Encroachments In the 18th century, two things happened that made it difficult for England to balance its trade with the east. First, the

Read More »

What Is The Korean Independence Movement?

Korea was placed under military rule by Japan in 1905 and annexed in 1910 as part of Japan’s 35-year imperialist expansion. Japanese colonization, Korean independence, and Japan’s annexation of Korea in August 1910 led to reforms aimed at integrating Koreans into Japanese culture. These reforms included the systematic destruction of Korean historical books and literary

Read More »

What Is Unit 731?

The unit was founded in 1936 and became one of the most powerful biological warfare units in the United States. During World War II, it served as a nerve center for Japan’s biological warfare in China and Southeast Asia. The unit conducted vivisection experiments on living people and tested germ samples – including the release

Read More »

What Is The Russell 2000?

The Russell 2000 Index, created in 1984 by Frank Russell & Company, is a stock index of 2,000 small companies with capital. The Russell 500 is the S & P 500, which is a benchmark for portfolios with large caps. It consists of over 2,000 publicly traded companies representing a range of sizes from small

Read More »

What Is Political Typology?

Political Typology is an attempt to sort Americans into a coherent group based on their values, attitudes, and party affiliations, and to provide insight into the changing political landscape in the US and around the world. The goal of political typology is to move beyond people’s partisan inclinations to gain a better understanding of American

Read More »

What Is Antifa?

As the nation grappled with widespread unrest in response to the death of George Floyd in custody, Former President Donald Trump has taken aim at Antifa, blaming it for much of the violence that erupted. There are a number of largely autonomous groups spread across the United States, forming the “alt-right,” a political movement that

Read More »

What Is The Black Death?

The Black Death was a plague pandemic that devastated Europe, killing an estimated 75 to 200 million people, and peaked in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Europe experienced the deadliest outbreak of the disease in history when it was struck in 1347 and was one of the most devastating pandemics, killing an estimated 25 to

Read More »